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Yellow Fever in Brazil (Update 18)

23 May 2018

The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control reports that from July 2017 to 06 may 2018, Brazil has recorded 1 261 confirmed human cases of yellow fever, including 409 deaths. Cases have been reported in São Paolo (517), Minas Gerais (516), Rio de Janeiro (221), Espirito Santo (6) and Distrito Federal (1).

Yellow fever has also been reported in monkeys, presenting a possible risk of further spread of infection to humans. There have been 738 confirmed infections in monkeys in several states: São Paulo (593), Minas Gerais (100), Rio de Janeiro (39), Tocantins (3), Espirito Santo (2) and Mato Grosso (1).

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has stated that yellow fever transmission is likely to spread along the coast of southern Brazil in coming months. As a result of this possibility, WHO advises yellow fever vaccination for international travellers to the  the entire States of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

Since the beginning of 2018, unvaccinated travellers from the Czech Republic (1), France (1), the Netherlands (1), Romania (1), Switzerland (1) and Germany have contracted yellow fever in Brazil. At least one of these individuals has died.

Advice to travellers

  • There is a widespread risk of yellow fever in Brazil.

  • The World Health Organisation recommends yellow fever vaccine for travellers to areas at risk of yellow fever (including all of São Paulo State and São Paulo City) unless contraindicated. Vaccination is also advised for all of of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul.

  • The most recent yellow fever risk map of Brazil are shown here. Note that the entire risk areas of of Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul are not yet shown.

  • A traveller's risk of yellow fever is determined by their general risk assessment e.g. country visited, length of stay, city or rural, activities etc.

  • is determined by their general risk assessment e.g. country visited, length of stay, city or rural, activities etc.

  • Mosquito bite avoidance rules should be adhered to at all times - the mosquito that spreads yellow fever bites predominantly during the day.

For further information see Yellow Fever.