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Saudi Arabia (Middle East)

Advice for All Destinations Immunisations Malaria Malaria Map Other Health Risks Hajj Related Vaccines News

The World Health Organization declared the outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) a pandemic on the 11 March 2020. This means COVID-19 has spread worldwide.

All travellers to all destinations should read the latest information about COVID-19 prior to booking and before travel. 

Advice for All Destinations

If you're planning to travel outside the UK, your travel health needs will depend on your individual situation, including:

  • your destination
  • how long you'll stay
  • what you’ll be doing
  • your general health

Ideally consult with your travel healthcare practitioner 6-8 weeks in advance of travel. If your trip is sooner, contact them anyway, they may still be able to help and its never too late to seek advice.

Many of the health problems experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccinations and other measures need to be taken. These include food and water safety, accident prevention, care with sun exposure, avoiding insect bites and animal bites, and practicing good respiratory hygiene.

If you will be travelling with medication (including over the counter medication) you should check for any restrictions on medications before you travel, you can do this by contacting the embassy of the country you're visiting.

Ensure you have travel insurance and are fully covered for medical emergencies including repatriation. For Travel Safety Advice you should visit the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office website.

A worldwide list of travel clinics, run by members of the International Society of Travel Medicine is available on their website

If you are unwell on return from travel, seek medical attention and let your healthcare practitioner know where you have been.


  • Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including for example, seasonal flu vaccine (if indicated), MMR, vaccines required for occupational risk of exposure, lifestyle risks and underlying medical conditions.
  • Courses or boosters usually advised: Tetanus.
  • Other vaccines to consider: Diphtheria; Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; Influenza; Meningococcal Meningitis; Poliomyelitis; Rabies.
  • Selectively advised vaccines - only for those individuals at highest risk: none.
  • Yellow fever vaccination certificate required for travellers aged 1 year or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and for travellers having transited for more than 12 hours through an airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.

Notes on the diseases mentioned above

  • Diphtheria spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Risk is higher if mixing with locals in poor, overcrowded living conditions.
  • Hepatitis A spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route.

    Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation is poor.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who inject drugs.

  • Hepatitis B spread through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse.

    Risk is higher for long stays, frequent travel and for children (exposed through cuts and scratches), those who may require medical treatment during travel.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who change partners frequently; people who inject drugs.

  • Flu (Influenza) spread via airborne droplets among crowds and in enclosed spaces. Travellers in the UK influenza risk groups should ensure that they have received their seasonal influenza vaccine before travel. The Saudi Ministry of Health recommends seasonal influenza vaccine for Hajj attendees.
  • Meningococcal Meningitis spread by droplet infection through close person to person contact. Meningococcal disease is found worldwide but epidemics may occur within this country, particularly during the dry season. Risk is higher for those mixing with locals for extended periods.
  • Poliomyelitis spread person to person through the faecal-oral route and by consuming contaminated food and water. A total of 5 doses of polio vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended for countries where polio remains a problem.
  • Rabies spread through the saliva of an infected animal, usually through a bite, scratch or lick on broken skin. Particularly dogs and related species, and also cats and bats. Risk is higher for those going to remote areas (who may not be able to promptly access appropriate treatment in the event of a bite), long stays, those at higher risk of contact with animals and bats, and children.All travellers should avoid contact with animals (both wild and domestic) particularly dogs and cats. Even when pre-exposure vaccine has been received, urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal or bat bite.
  • Tetanus spread through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.


Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes.You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.

Malaria precautions

Malaria Map
  • Malaria risk is present throughout the year in the provinces of Jazan, Aseer, Najaran and all other areas. Hajj pilgrims, may travel between Mecca and Medina. The risk of malaria is low in both cities and antimalarial prophylaxis is not advised. However, pilgrims who are outdoors or walking at night should take strict mosquito bite precautions.
  • Malaria precautions are essential. Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary, sleeping under a mosquito net.
  • See malaria map – additional information can be found by clicking on the Regional Information icon below the map.
  • Low to no risk areas: antimalarials are not usually advised.
  • If you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever seek medical attention promptly. Remember malaria can develop even up to one year after exposure.

Other Health Risks


A parasitic infection (also known as bilharzia) that is transmitted to humans through contact with fresh water. The parasite enters humans through the skin and prevention is dependant on avoidance of swimming, bathing or paddling in fresh water lakes and streams. For further information see Schistosomiasis

Meningococcal Meningitis

For Hajj 1440H (2019) the Saudi MoH advised visitors arriving for Umrah, Hajj or for seasonal work in Hajj zones, were required to submit a valid vaccination certificate with a Quadrivalent (ACWY) meningococcal vaccine administered no less than 10 days prior to arrival to Saudi Arabia.

Vaccination with ONE of the following vaccines was acceptable:

  • quadrivalent (ACWY) polysaccharide vaccine within the last 3 years
  • quadrivalent (ACWY) conjugate vaccine within the last 5 years

Note: If the vaccine type was not indicated in the certificate, the certificate was considered valid for 3 years.

Vaccination with Quadrivalent (ACWY) conjugate vaccine was also required for:

  • domestic pilgrims
  • residents of the two holy cities (Mecca and Medina)
  • any person who may be in contact with pilgrims including personnel in healthcare settings

The Saudi MoH advised they may have opted to administer prophylactic antibiotics to some travellers at the points of entry if deemed necessary.

Yellow Fever

The Saudi MoHLink required that all travellers arriving from countries or areas at risk of yellow fever transmission (see link below) must present a valid yellow fever vaccination certificate. The yellow fever vaccination certificate is valid for life starting 10 days after vaccination.


The Saudi MoHLink announced that all travellers arriving from countries with circulating wild or vaccine-derived poliovirus (cVDPV2) and from countries at risk of polio reintroduction were required to submit a valid polio vaccination certificate.

Travellers arriving from Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo, Mozambique, Myanmar, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Somalia, Syria, and Yemen were expected to present proof of vaccination with one of the following vaccines: 

  • At least one dose of bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV) within the previous 12 months and administered at least 4 weeks prior to arrival. 
  • At least one dose of inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) within the previous 12 months and administered at least 4 weeks prior to arrival. 


  • Travellers arriving from Afghanistan, Myanmar, Nigeria, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Somalia, Syria and Yemen would also have received one dose of OPV at the border points on arrival into Saudi Arabia.

Influenza vaccination

  • The Ministry of Health of Saudia ArabiaLink recommended influenza vaccine before arrival, especially for those at increased risk, for example the elderly and those with chronic chest or heart disease.

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