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Chikungunya Fever

Introduction

Chikungunya fever is caused by a virus and is spread by the Aedes species of mosquito which predominantly bite during the day. These mosquitoes also transmit Dengue fever, Zika virus and Yellow Fever.

Chikungunya fever is widespread across the world and is currently reported in > 100 countries in Africa, Asia, North, South and Central America, the Caribbean and Pacific islands. Cases in Italy and France have been reported in recent years, but the infection has not become fully established in Europe.

Outbreaks of infection are common and often occur after the rainy seasons when mosquitoes breed more actively.

The Illness

Symptoms start 1-12 days after the mosquito bite.  A high fever is usually accompanied by intense joint pains.  A rash, headache, fatigue, nausea and muscle pains may also occur. The illness usually resolves over a few days and serious complications are uncommon.  However a proportion of people are left with ongoing joint pains/swelling which may continue for weeks – years.

Treatment

There is no specific anti-viral treatment for chikungunya virus infection. Symptoms like fever, joint pain and headache can be treated with painkillers.. Ongoing joint pains often need anti-inflammatory medications and may need assessment by a joint specialist.

Recommendations for Travellers

The best way to avoid infection is to avoid mosquito bites. As the transmitting mosquitoes bite from dawn until dusk, long loose clothing and repellents should be worn all day. Further advice on Mosquito bite avoidance is available.

Medical attention must be sought for any feverish illness experienced whilst travelling or on your return home.

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