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Advice for All Destinations Vaccinations Malaria Malaria Map Other Health Risks Alerts News

Advice for All Destinations

COVID-19

Read the information on the COVID-19: Health Considerations for Travel page for advice on travelling during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Vaccinations and malaria risk

Review both the Vaccination and Malaria sections on this page to find out if you may need vaccines and/or a malaria risk assessment before you travel to this country.

If you think you require vaccines and/or malaria risk assessment, you should make an appointment with a travel health professional:

A travel health risk assessment is also advisable for some people, even when vaccines or malaria tablets are not required.

Risk prevention advice 

Many of the health risks experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccines and other measures need to be taken.

Always make sure you understand the wider risks at your destination and take precautions, including:

Our advice section gives detailed information on minimising specific health risks abroad:

Other health considerations

Make sure you have travel insurance before travel to cover healthcare abroad.

Find out if there are any restrictions you need to consider if you are travelling with medicines.

Know how to access healthcare at your destination: see the GOV.UK English speaking doctors and medical facilities: worldwide list

If you feel unwell on your return home from travelling abroad, always seek advice from a healthcare professional and let them know your travel history.

Vaccinations

  • Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including for example, seasonal flu vaccine (if indicated), MMR, vaccines required for occupational risk of exposure, lifestyle risks and underlying medical conditions.
  • Courses or boosters usually advised: Tetanus.
  • Other vaccines to consider: Diphtheria; Hepatitis A; Hepatitis B; Rabies; Typhoid.
  • Selectively advised vaccines - only for those individuals at highest risk: Japanese Encephalitis.
  • Yellow fever vaccination certificate required for travellers aged 1 year or over arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission.

Notes on the diseases mentioned above

  • Diphtheria spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Risk is higher if mixing with locals in poor, overcrowded living conditions.
  • Hepatitis A spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route.

    Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation is poor.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who inject drugs.

  • Hepatitis B spread through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse.

    Risk is higher for long stays, frequent travel and for children (exposed through cuts and scratches), those who may require medical treatment during travel.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who change partners frequently; people who inject drugs.

  • Japanese Encephalitis spread through the bite of an infected mosquito. This mosquito breeds in rice paddies and mainly bites between dusk and dawn. Risk is highest for long stay travellers to rural areas, particularly if unable to avoid mosquito bites.
  • Rabies spread through the saliva of infected animals (especially dogs, cats, bats and monkeys), usually through a bite, scratch or lick to broken skin. Risk is higher for those working or living in remote or rural areas (with no easy access to medical facilities), longer stay travellers, those planning on undertaking activities such as trekking, cycling or running in a 'high risk' country, those working with, or regularly handling animals or bats, as part of their job, and children. Even after receiving pre-travel rabies vaccine, urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal or bat bite.
  • Tetanus spread through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.
  • Typhoid spread mainly through consumption of contaminated food and drink. Risk is higher where access to adequate sanitation and safe water is limited.

Malaria

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes.You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.

Malaria precautions

Malaria Map
  • Malaria risk is low throughout the year in some southern areas.
  • Malaria precautions are essential . Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary, sleeping under a mosquito net.
  • See malaria map – additional information can be found by clicking on the Regional Information icon below the map.
  • Low to no risk areas: antimalarial tablets are not usually advised.
  • If you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever seek medical attention promptly. Remember malaria can develop even up to one year after exposure.

Other Health Risks

Altitude and Travel

This country has either areas with high altitude (2400m or more) or/and areas with very high altitude (3658m or more). Travellers who may go into areas of high altitude should take care to avoid ill effects of being at altitude including Acute Mountain Sickness, a potentially life-threatening condition. For further information see Altitude and Travel

Alerts

COVID-19

In this country there is a high risk of exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) and/or emerging or known variants of coronavirus (COVID-19).

You should be aware that the risk of COVID-19 in this country may change at short notice. You must also consider the risk of exposure in transit countries and during your journey.

All travellers are advised to avoid non-essential travel to this country. This applies even if you are fully vaccinated.

Prior to travel, you should consider:

  • Is the journey really essential?
  • Are you up to date with UK recommendations on COVID-19 vaccination, particularly if you are at increased risk of severe COVID-19.
  • Your risk of severe COVID-19 and availability of medical facilities at your destination.
    • To find out if you are at increased risk of severe COVID-19, see the FAQ’s.
  • Your ability to comply with COVID-19 prevention advice during travel and at your destination.

For further information, see Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disease page.

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