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Sudan (Africa)

Advice for All Destinations Immunisations Malaria Malaria Map Other Health Risks Alerts News

COVID-19

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has led to unprecedented international border closures and travel restrictions being imposed without notice.

Before making travel plans you should check all of the following:

Advice for All Destinations

If you're planning to travel outside the UK, your travel health needs will depend on your individual situation, including:

  • your destination
  • how long you'll stay
  • what you’ll be doing
  • your general health

Ideally consult with your travel healthcare practitioner 6-8 weeks in advance of travel. If your trip is sooner, contact them anyway, they may still be able to help and its never too late to seek advice.

Many of the health problems experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccinations and other measures need to be taken. These include food and water safety, accident prevention, care with sun exposure, avoiding insect bites and animal bites, and practicing good respiratory hygiene and hand hygiene.

For advice about travelling abroad, including the latest information on safety and security, entry requirements and travel warnings you should visit the Foreign, Commonwealth and Development Office (FCDO) website.

If you will be travelling with medication (including over the counter medication) you should check for any restrictions on medications before you travel, you can do this by contacting the embassy of the country you're visiting.

Ensure you have travel insurance and are fully covered for medical emergencies including repatriation. 

Make sure you know how to access healthcare at your destination: 

  • A list of doctors and medical facilities worldwide can be accessed on the FCDO website.
  • A worldwide list of travel clinics, run by members of the International Society of Travel Medicine is available on their website.

If you are unwell on return from travel, seek medical attention and let your healthcare practitioner know where you have been.

Immunisations

  • Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including for example, seasonal flu vaccine (if indicated), MMR, vaccines required for occupational risk of exposure, lifestyle risks and underlying medical conditions.
  • Courses or boosters usually advised: Diphtheria; Hepatitis A; Poliomyelitis; Tetanus.
  • Other vaccines to consider: Hepatitis B; Meningococcal Meningitis; Rabies; Typhoid; Yellow Fever.
  • Selectively advised vaccines - only for those individuals at highest risk: Cholera.
  • Yellow fever vaccination certificate required for all travellers aged 1 year or over.

Notes on the diseases mentioned above

  • Cholera spread through consumption of contaminated water and food. It would be unusual for travellers to contract cholera if they take basic precautions with food and water and maintain a good standard of hygiene.

    Risk is higher during floods and after natural disasters, in areas with very poor sanitation and lack of clean drinking water.

    Risk is highest for humanitarian aid workers; those working in refugee camps or slums; those caring for people with cholera.

  • Diphtheria spread person to person through respiratory droplets. Risk is higher if mixing with locals in poor, overcrowded living conditions.
  • Hepatitis A spread through consuming contaminated food and water or person to person through the faecal-oral route.

    Risk is higher where personal hygiene and sanitation is poor.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who inject drugs.

  • Hepatitis B spread through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse.

    Risk is higher for long stays, frequent travel and for children (exposed through cuts and scratches), those who may require medical treatment during travel.

    Risk is highest for those with underlying medical conditions where there is increased risk of severe disease e.g. chronic liver/kidney disease; haemophiliacs; men who have sex with men; people who change partners frequently; people who inject drugs.

  • Meningococcal Meningitis spread by droplet infection through close person to person contact. Meningococcal disease is found worldwide but epidemics may occur within this country, particularly during the dry season. Risk is higher for those mixing with locals for extended periods.
  • Poliomyelitis spread mainly through person to person contact (faecal-oral route) and by consuming contaminated food and water. A total of 5 doses of polio-containing vaccine are recommended in the UK for lifetime cover. Boosters are usually recommended for travel to countries where polio remains a problem.
  • Rabies spread through the saliva of infected animals (especially dogs, cats, bats and monkeys), usually through a bite, scratch or lick to broken skin. Risk is higher for those working or living in remote or rural areas (with no easy access to medical facilities), longer stay travellers, those planning on undertaking activities such as trekking, cycling or running in a 'high risk' country, those working with, or regularly handling animals or bats, as part of their job, and children. Even after receiving pre-travel rabies vaccine, urgent medical advice should be sought after any animal or bat bite.
  • Tetanus spread through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.
  • Typhoid spread mainly through consumption of contaminated food and drink. Risk is higher where access to adequate sanitation and safe water is limited.
  • Yellow Fever spread by the bite of an infected, day-biting mosquito. The disease is mainly found in rural areas of affected countries but outbreaks in urban areas do occur. Vaccination is usually recommended for all those who travel into risk areas. View yellow fever risk areas here. In addition, certain countries may want to see proof of vaccination on an official yellow fever vaccination certificate - check above under Immunisations.

Malaria

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease transmitted by mosquitoes.You cannot be vaccinated against malaria.

Malaria precautions

Malaria Map
  • Malaria risk is present throughout the year. Risk is highest in the south and along the entire length of the river Nile. In the north risk is not high enough to warrant antimalarial tablets for most travellers, however, it may be considered for certain groups who may be at higher risk (see below under Low risk with additional advice). There is low to no risk in Khartoum.
  • Malaria precautions are essential. Avoid mosquito bites by covering up with clothing such as long sleeves and long trousers especially after sunset, using insect repellents on exposed skin and, when necessary, sleeping under a mosquito net.
  • Check with your doctor or nurse about suitable antimalarial tablets.
  • See malaria map – additional information can be found by clicking on the Regional Information icon below the map.
  • High risk areas: atovaquone/proguanil OR doxycycline OR mefloquine is usually advised for those visiting risk areas.
  • If you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever seek medical attention promptly. Remember malaria can develop even up to one year after exposure.
  • Low risk areas with additional advice: antimalarial tablets are not usually advised, however they can be considered for certain travellers who may be at higher risk e.g. longer stays in rural areas, visiting friends or relatives, those with medical conditions, immunosuppression or those without a spleen: atovaquone/proguanil OR doxycycline OR mefloquine is advised for those at risk.
  • Low to no risk areas: antimalarial tablets are not usually advised.
  • If you have been travelling in a malarious area and develop a fever seek medical attention promptly. Remember malaria can develop even up to one year after exposure.
  • If travelling to an area remote from medical facilities, carrying standby emergency treatment for malaria may be considered.

Other Health Risks

Altitude and Travel

This country has either areas with high altitude (2400m or more) or/and areas with very high altitude (3658m or more). Travellers who may go into areas of high altitude should take care to avoid ill effects of being at altitude including Acute Mountain Sickness, a potentially life-threatening condition. For further information see Altitude and Travel

Dengue Fever

A viral illness that is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. The mosquito that spreads dengue bites during the day and is more common in urban areas. Symptoms include fever, headache, severe joint, bone and muscular pain - hence its other name 'breakbone fever'. There is no vaccine and prevention is through avoidance of mosquito bites. For further information see Dengue Fever

Schistosomiasis

A parasitic infection (also known as bilharzia) that is transmitted to humans through contact with fresh water. The parasite enters humans through the skin and prevention is dependant on avoidance of swimming, bathing or paddling in fresh water lakes and streams. For further information see Schistosomiasis

Alerts

COVID-19

There is a high risk of exposure to coronavirus (COVID-19) in this country and local healthcare capacity may be severely impacted.

Please be aware that risk of COVID-19 in this country may change at short notice, and also consider your risk in any transit countries and from travelling itself.

You should consider:

  • Is your journey really necessary?
  • Are you at an increased risk of severe COVID-19? Will you be able to access to medical facilities at your destination?
    • If you are at increased risk you should reconsider your travel plans and seek medical advice prior to making any decisions.
    • To find out if you are at increased risk of severe COVID-19, see the FAQ’s

For further information, see Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and COVID-19: Health Considerations for Travel pages.

Polio Vaccination Exit Recommendations

Travellers visiting this country for longer than 4 weeks may be advised to have a booster dose of a polio containing vaccine if they have not had one in the past 12 months. They should carry proof of having had this vaccination. Please speak to your travel health adviser to discuss.

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