On 10 September 2017 the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) reported 3 cases of typhoid fever linked to the European Rainbow Gathering in Tramonti di Sopra, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Italy, that took place from 23 July to 21 August 2017.
On 12 September, German authorities reported another case linked to this event. It is possible that further cases may be identified in other countries.
Typhoid is a rare infection in Europe, being seen mainly in those who have visited locations with poor sanitation.
Advice to travellers
Typhoid is spread by the faecal oral route, precautionary measures should therefore be taken to avoid consumption of potentially contaminated drinks, drinking water and ice and to ensure food is uncontaminated or cooked thoroughly.
Personal hygiene when eating and drinking is also important including hand washing prior to eating and using clean plates, cups and utensils.
When to consider vaccination
Vaccination is recommended for travellers to high risk areas where food and water may be contaminated.
Travel to low risk areas - vaccination may be recommended only to those staying in conditions with poor sanitation and unable to maintain their own hygiene precautions e.g. hand hygiene and water purification.
For further information see Typhoid.