Advice for All Destinations
Other Health Risks
Advice for All Destinations
The risks to health whilst travelling will vary between individuals and many issues need to be taken into account, e.g. activities abroad, length of stay and general health of the traveller. It is recommended that you consult with your General Practitioner or Practice Nurse 6-8 weeks in advance of travel. They will assess your particular health risks before recommending vaccines and /or antimalarial tablets. This is also a good opportunity to discuss important travel health issues including safe food and water, accidents, sun exposure and insect bites. Many of the problems experienced by travellers cannot be prevented by vaccinations and other preventive measures need to be taken.
Measles occurs worldwide and is common in developing countries. The pre-travel consultation is a good opportunity to check that you are immune, either by previous immunisation or natural measles infection.
Ensure you are fully insured for medical emergencies including repatriation. UK travellers visiting other European Union countries should also carry the European Health Insurance Card (EHIC) as it entitles travellers to reduced cost, sometimes free, medical treatment in most European countries. Online applications normally arrive within seven days. Applications may also be made by telephone on 0300 330 1350 or by post using the form which can be downloaded from the website.
For Travel Safety Advice you should visit the UK Foreign and Commonwealth Office website.
A worldwide list of clinics, run by members of the International Society of Travel Medicine is available on the ISTM website.
- Confirm primary courses and boosters are up to date as recommended for life in Britain - including for example, vaccines required for occupational risk of exposure, lifestyle risks and underlying medical conditions.
- Courses or boosters usually advised:
- Other vaccines to consider:
Hepatitis B; Tetanus.
- Yellow fever vaccination certificate required for travellers over 1 year of age arriving from countries with risk of yellow fever transmission and for travellers having transited more than 12 hours through the airport of a country with risk of yellow fever transmission.
The certificate of yellow fever vaccination is valid for life in this country.
Notes on the diseases mentioned above
- Hepatitis B:
through infected blood and blood products, contaminated needles and medical instruments and sexual intercourse. Risk is higher for those at occupational risk, long stays or frequent travel, children (exposed through cuts and scratches) and individuals who may need, or request, surgical procedures abroad.
through contamination of cuts, burns and wounds with tetanus spores. Spores are found in soil worldwide. A total of 5 doses of tetanus vaccine are recommended for life in the UK. Boosters are usually recommended in a country or situation where the correct treatment of an injury may not be readily available.
- Malaria not normally present unless the illness was contracted abroad.
Other Health Risks
A viral illness that is transmitted to humans by mosquito bites. The mosquito that spreads dengue bites during the day and is more common in urban areas. Symptoms include fever, headache, severe joint, bone and muscular pain - hence its other name 'breakbone fever'. There is no vaccine and prevention is through avoidance of mosquito bites.
For further information see Dengue Fever.
A parasitic infection (also known as bilharzia) that is transmitted to humans through contact with fresh water. The parasite enters humans through the skin and prevention is dependant on avoidance of swimming, bathing or paddling in fresh water lakes and streams.
For further information see Schistosomiasis.
This country has either a current risk of Zika Virus (ZIKV) or has reported cases of ZIKV virus in the recent past. ZIKV is most commonly spread by mosquito bites, but there is also a low risk of sexual transmission. There is a link between ZIKV infection and babies being born with birth defects.
Advice for Travellers:
- All travellers should practice strict mosquito bite avoidance, at all times.
- Do not travel without adequate travel insurance.
- Seek pre-travel advice from your health care provider 6-8 weeks in advance of travel, particularly important if you are pregnant or planning pregnancy
- Pregnant women are advised to postpone non-essential travel to countries or areas with current risk of ZIKV transmission.
- If you develop any feverish illness whilst travelling or on return medical attention must be sought quickly.
Additional advice can be found on the ZIKV Infection page.
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